The History of Ballet: When Did It Start?

Ballet, a captivating art form that combines dance, music, and storytelling, has a rich history dating back centuries. Exploring the origins of ballet allows us to appreciate how this elegant and expressive discipline has evolved over time. In this blog post, we will delve into the beginnings of ballet and discover when it all started.

The Birth of Ballet in Renaissance Italy

Ballet as we know it today traces its roots to 15th-century Renaissance Italy. Initially known as “court dance,” ballet emerged during lavish royal festivities held in Florence and other Italian city-states. These early precursors focused more on group dances rather than individual virtuosity or narratives.

Catherine de’ Medici’s Influence on French Ballet

In the 16th century, Catherine de’ Medici married King Henry II of France, ushering in an era where ballet took significant strides forward. Catherine was passionate about Italian arts and introduced various court dances from her homeland into French culture. This influence led to the establishment of professional companies like the Académie Royale de Danse in Paris.

The First Official Ballet Performance: Le Ballet Comique de la Reine (1581)

A pivotal moment for ballet occurred with the staging of “Le Ballet Comique de la Reine” (The Comic Ballet of the Queen) in 1581 at Catherine’s son’s wedding reception – King Louis XIV. This influential performance featured elaborate costumes, intricate choreography by Balthazar Beaujoyeulx, and a complex storyline inspired by Greek mythology.

Rise of Louis XIV – The Sun King

King Louis XIV played an instrumental role in promoting ballet within France during his reign from 1643 to 1715. As a skilled dancer himself, Louis XIV established the Académie Royale de Danse in 1661, setting standards for ballet training and technique. His patronage elevated ballet to a respected art form enjoyed by nobility and commoners alike.

Evolution of Ballet Technique

The Five Positions of the Feet

Throughout its development, ballet introduced various technical innovations that have become fundamental to this dance form. One such advancement is the establishment of five positions of the feet – a system created by Pierre Beauchamp, Louis XIV’s principal dance master. These positions serve as a foundation for proper body alignment and balance in classical ballet.

Ballet Terminology: The Language of Dance

As ballet gained popularity across Europe over time, it also developed specialized vocabulary to describe movements and steps precisely. From pliés (bending knees) to pirouettes (spins), these unique terms allow dancers worldwide to communicate effectively in their shared language of dance.

Ballet Spreading Worldwide

Ballet transcended national borders during the 19th century when Russian dancers Marius Petipa and Lev Ivanov revolutionized choreography with iconic works like “Swan Lake” (1877) and “The Nutcracker” (1892). Their contributions cemented Russia’s place as one of the leading centers for classical ballet.

Meanwhile, outside Europe, influential figures like George Balanchine brought neoclassical ballet to prominence in America during the 20th century. This expansion enabled different techniques and styles to emerge worldwide while adding diversity within this art form.


In summary, although pre-dance rituals can be found in ancient civilizations such as Egypt or Greece, it was during Renaissance Italy that early forms similar to today’s ballet were born. With Catherine de’ Medici bringing her Italian heritage into France, ballet found fertile ground to flourish and evolve. Thanks to the patronage of King Louis XIV and subsequent contributions from influential artists across Europe and the world, ballet has become a captivating art form cherished by audiences worldwide. Its timeless elegance continues to inspire performers and spectators alike, reminding us of its profound historical origins.